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'Historical Summary of Events in the Persian Gulf Shaikhdoms and the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, 1928-1953' [‎92v] (189/222)

The record is made up of 1 volume (107 folios). It was created in c 1953. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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engage reciprocally to respect Muscat's independence.( li ) Under his treaty relations
with Her Majesty's Government the Sultan is pledged never to cede, sell, mortgage
or otherwise give for occupation, save to Her Majesty's Government, the dominions
of Muscat and Oman or any of their dependencies,! 7 ) and the right to search
Muscat vessels for slaves or arms has been ceded to Her Majesty's Government
(paragraph 97 below).( 8 ) While the Sultan is in theory a wholly independent
ruler, since the end of the eighteenth century British influence has been predominant
in Muscat and the relations which obtain between its ruler and Her Majesty's
Government approximate to those which obtain between Her Majesty's
Government and the Gulf Shaikhdoms. As already indicated, however, Saiyid
Sa'id is extremely jealous of his independence and while he will always turn to
Her Majesty's Government for advice and assistance when he is in difficulties,
on other occasions he is showing an increasing tendency to take a line of his own.
Generally speaking, the more his facade of independence is respected the more
willing he is to consult Her Majesty's Representatives or at least to keep them
informed about his own country's affairs and his dealings with other powers.
3. The Sultan keeps all affairs under his close personal control. He has an
Arab Minister of Internal Affairs and a British Minister for Foreign Affairs, who
are left in control at Muscat during his absences but are given no authority to make
decisions in any except very petty matters without consulting him. On such
occasions he is usually represented for ceremonial purposes by his uncle Saiyid
Shahab who is entitled to a salute of 13 guns when acting for his nephew. The
Sultan is his own Finance Minister but has recently re-employed a Pakistani called
Maqbul Hussain, who previously served as his Director of Customs and prior
to that as Treasury Officer in the Muscat Political Agency An office of the East India Company and, later, of the British Raj, headed by an agent. , to assist in his financial
matters. The Director of Customs is now Iskandar Hanna, an Egyptian Copt.
In the towns and larger villages there are Walis or local governors who work under
the orders of the Minister of Internal Affairs. When the British Minister for
Foreign Affairs was first appointed the Sultan made him responsible generally
for dealings with Her Majesty's Consulate but continued to transact important
business himself direct with Her Majesty's Consul-General. At Gwadur besides
the Wali who represents the Sultan there is a British Administrator who deals
mainly with municipal matters under the supervision of the Minister for Foreign
4. Until the Commercial Treaty ol 19510 was signed the representative of
Her Majesty's Government (and until 1947 of the Government of India) at Muscat
was designated Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , though since 1867 he was also held Her Majesty's
Commission as Consul and for many years has always been referred to by the
Sultan and the Omani tribesmen as such. At the time of the signing of the Treaty
an informal agreement was reached with the Sultan that the designation " Political
Agent should be dropped.( ) Her Majesty's representative is now a Consul with
the personal rank and salute of Consul-General. He is assisted by a Vice-Consul
who in the absences of his superior officer, is only entitled to act" as Consul No
exequaturs are issued by the Sultan but under the 1951 Treaty his formal consent
and approval has to be obtained before a Consul or Vice-Consul is appointed
At Gwadur an Indian or Pakistani is usually appointed by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
to hold charge of British interests. Until 1952 he was designated'
but has now been made a Pro-Consul and is designated' as such There is no
obligation to consult the Sultan before such an appointment is made.
5 During the twenty-five years under review Her Majesty's Government have
maintained in Muscat a predominating influence which is not at present threatened
by any other power. In recent years there has been some increase of American
influence, but it has not been used to weaken Her Majesty's Government's nositinn
The present Sultan, however, since his accession whilst retamin^ h ™dendsto S
Her Majesty's Government and consulting them when in difficulties has teen
extremely jealous of his independence and~has shown an increasing tendency to
Majesty^; Government. 676 " ^ matterS 0f SOme im P orta " ce with ^ informing Her
( 6 ) No. 3 V, T.C.
( 7 ) No. 7 V, T.C.
( 8 ) No. 6 V, T.C.
( 9 ) No. 11 V, T.C.
( 10 ) P.R .toF.O. 142 (1041/229) of December 27, 1951 (EA 1053/174 of 1951)

About this item


The document provides historical information on the region during the period in question and, following a section on general matters, has separate sections on Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, the Trucial States A name used by Britain from the nineteenth century to 1971 to refer to the present-day United Arab Emirates. , and Muscat

Extent and format
1 volume (107 folios)

There is a table of contents at the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at 1 on the front cover and terminates at 109 on the back cover. These numbers are written in pencil, are enclosed in a circle, and appear in the top right hand corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. page of each folio. The foliation sequence continues into the separate volume of appendices and genealogical tables - IOR/R/15/1/731(2).

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English in Latin script
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'Historical Summary of Events in the Persian Gulf Shaikhdoms and the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman, 1928-1953' [‎92v] (189/222), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/1/731(1), in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 25 February 2024]

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